(2013) added three protein‐coding nuclear gene fragments, carbamoyl‐phosphate synthetase (CPSase of CAD), the F1 copy of EF‐1α, and RNA polymerase II (POL), to this “standard package”, and especially CAD was deemed very informative for hymenopteran phylogenetics. A Review of the Suborder, the Western Palaearctic Taxa of Xyeloidea and Pamphilioidea, The phylogeny of lower Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a summary of the early evolutionary history of the order, Phylogeny and classification of the extant basal lineages of the Hymenoptera (Insecta), Per arborem ad astra: morphological adaptations to exploiting the woody habitat in the early evolution of Hymenoptera, Beyond the wasp‐waist: structural diversity and phylogenetic significance of the mesosoma in apocritan wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera), Genomic outposts serve the phylogenomic pioneers: designing novel nuclear markers for genomic DNA extractions of Lepidoptera, A new genus and two new species of Belesesinae (Hymenoptera – Tenthredinomorpha: Blennocampidae) from China, Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Introns were identified in all nuclear genes, based on the presence of GT–AG splicing sites, and then deleted from the final alignments. (2013). Sawfly caterpillars on Willow Trees. Female sawflies emit a sex pheromone that helps the male locate females for mating purposes. Full-text available. Corresponding ML analyses likewise exhibited low bootstrap support values and weak resolution for deeper parts of the tree. Giant sawflies and their kin: morphological phylogeny of Cimbicidae (Hymenoptera). Birch Catkin Bug. It is also used as firewood and to make paper pulp. Additionally, we analysed the combined data with maximum parsimony (MP) to evaluate its phylogenetic signal with fewer assumptions about underlying models. Black Carpet Beetle. She deposits a single egg into each slit and several eggs in a needle.The larvae are caterpillar-like with six or more pairs of prolegs on the abdomen. Nucleotide data for this study totals 6812 bp for 206 specimens. Polymerase chain reactions (PCR), performed in final volumes of 25 μL, consisted of 5 μL 5 × reaction buffer (final concentration of 1 ×), 2.5 μL MgCl2 (final concentration 2.5 mm), 0.5 μL dNTP mix (Finnzymes) (final concentration of 0.2 mm of each nucleotide), 1 μL of each primer (final concentration 0.4 mm), 0.15 μL GoTaq® Flexi DNA Polymerase (Promega) (final amount 0.75 units), 1–2 μL DNA template, and 12.85–13.85 μL PCR grade H2O. In analyses of the 12_hym data set Tenthredinoidea + Unicalcarida is equivocal: it is strongly supported by BI (PP 1, Appendix S4b), weakly supported by ML (CF 68%, Appendix S4b), and contradicted by MP, where Pamphiliidae and Megalodontesidae are placed in a trichotomy together with Unicalcarida, but with weak support (JF 72%, Appendix S5b). Phylogenetic network analysis as a parsimony optimization problem. Aron S, De Menten L, Van Bockstaele DR, Blank SM, Roisin Y. Iris sawfly larvae feed on leaves of iris plants. Next, Argidae and Pergidae form a monophylum as sister to the remaining tenthredinoids. Dan Gill says, Pine trees produce male cones, which shed pollen, and female cones, which develop into pine cones.  |  doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2005.03.017. Labriocimbex sinicus The model‐based tree from the Hymenoptera‐only analysis of all first and second codon positions (12_hym; Appendix S4b), as well as the one also including third positions of CAD and GLN (12 + CAD3 + GLN3_hym, Figs 2-4), are topologically identical to the 12_all result when considering the relationships among symphytan families. Bayesian assignment of Xyela concava…, Figure 2. Coryninae and its single genus Corynis is found as the sister to the other two subfamilies represented within Cimbicidae, but specimens from the Neotropical Pachylostictinae were not included and will provide additional insight. Pine trees produce male cones, which shed … Instead of a stinger, the female has a sawlike ovipositor that she uses to make a slit in the edge of a needle. After the divergence of Athalia, we find the single representative of the genus Eriocampa (E. ovata, currently classified in the subfamily Allantinae) as sister to all remaining tenthredinids in the BI and ML analyses of the 12 + CAD3 + GLN3_hym data set (Fig. (2006, 2010), with the four “higher” Nematinae representatives (Nematus, Pachynematus, Fagineura, and Craesus) being monophyletic in relation to the paraphyletic “lower” genera. The larvae is a greenish-gray color and has one dark stripe and two pale stripes on both sides of its body. North-Western Palaearctic species of the Pristiphora ruficornis group (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Flee Weevils. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 119 (Special Issue): 703–717. Insecticidal Soap (Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids) & Pyrethrin- The soap will penetrate the insect's shell and kill it by dehydration. The subfamilies Tenthredininae and Allantinae s.str. Dan Gill says, Pine trees produce male cones, which shed pollen, and female cones, which develop into pine cones. 4) as well as in all MP analyses (Appendix S5a–c), though the support for its placement is weak. Nevertheless, many questions still remain, particularly concerning relationships within the hyperdiverse suborder Apocrita, but also when it comes to the evolutionary history of the ancestrally herbivorous “sawfly” lineages that form the basal, paraphyletic grade Symphyta. Lighter shading indicates a higher probability of belonging to the genetic population. Conifer sawflies (such as the loblolly pine sawfly, Neodiprion taedae linearis Ross) can occasionally cause serious injury to pines and other evergreens by feeding on foliage, tunneling into buds or boring into shoots. The resolution within this clade is improved and strengthened by the inclusion of third codon positions, an effect of better sampling and possibly younger diversification age among the larger tenthredinoid groups than within the Unicalcarida (see Ronquist et al., 2012a). Further on, Unicalcarida is highly supported as monophyletic and, in all BI analyses, recovered as {Cephidae [Siricoidea, (Xiphydriidae, Vespina)]}. In addition, 100 bootstrapped data sets were analysed for estimating clade support, using a GTR model and the CAT model of rate heterogeneity. Lighter shading indicates a higher probability of belonging to the genetic population), (B) BAPS (the area of each population is proportional to the number of specimens used) and (C) STRUCTURE. NIH Larvae devour the needles of conifer trees. ... catkin-like. (2013) recovered the branching order within Unicalcarida as (Xiphydriidae, (Siricoidea, Cephidae, Vespina)) in their analyses excluding morphological data, and Sharkey et al. (2006) in an analysis based on morphological data. Voucher specimens were provided by, and are stored at, many different institutions (Appendix S1). Stephan M. Blank and Katja Kramp "Xyela davidsmithi (Hymenoptera, Xyelidae), a New Pine Catkin Sawfly with an Unusual Host Association from the Sierra Nevada," Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 119(sp1), 703-717, (1 December 2017). Current Biology. Even though weakly supported by ML analyses, and only by CAD among the single genes, this order of branching events corresponds well with earlier studies, but contrasting hypotheses have also been proposed. PDF (9.0MB) Save to Mendeley Read in ReadCube RIS XML BibTeX × Report a problem. While the high gene flow was unexpected, because of assumed restricted dispersal ability of X. concava and the discontinuous distribution of the host trees between the populations, the segregation of two lineages is comprehensible and could be explained by different refuge areas of the hosts during glacial times. Brown et al., 2010; Marshall, 2010). The larvae feed primarily on white pine and other five-needle pines, The white pine sawfly (Neodiprion pinetum) larva is cream color with four rows of black spots on the body and a black head. Conventional insecticides such as malathion are also effective. Stephan M. Blank, Katja Kramp, Xyela davidsmithi (Hymenoptera, Xyelidae), a New Pine Catkin Sawfly with an Unusual Host Association from the Sierra Nevada , Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 10.4289/0013-8797.119.SpecialIssue.703, 119, sp1, (703-717), (2017). Aculeata is highly supported in all analyses except the MP analysis of the 12 + CAD3 + GLN3_hym data set (Appendix S5c), whereas Proctotrupomorpha is highly supported only by the BI analyses of the 12_all (Appendix S4a) and the 12 + CAD3 + GLN3_hym (Fig. Due to the wide diversity of hymenopteran life histories and their high economic importance, there has been increased interest in the evolutionary history of the order (Sharkey, 2007), but the group remains understudied simply because of its sheer size (Bacher, 2012; Veijalainen et al., 2012). Maximum parsimony analyses using “new technologies” (Goloboff, 1999) were run in TNT v1.1 (Goloboff et al., 2003), using equally weighted characters and with 500 replications of the tree‐search strategy “xmult”, including sectorial searches, ratchet (one iteration), drifting (one iteration) and tree fusing (one round), followed by 50 additional ratchet searches and a final TBR branch swapping. Figure 2. A short video on identifying and removing Pine Sawfly larvae from your ornamental conifers without the use of insecticides or harsh chemicals. Zenarge turneri, an Australian cypress feeder, is in several single‐gene trees grouped together with Pergidae, as can be deduced from the low or non‐existent single‐gene support for these two families (Fig. European pine sawfly larvae quickly strip pines of older needles. excluding Heptamelus and Pseudoheptamelus), albeit with weak support (Appendix S4a,b). They don't hurt the tree and they should only fall for a few days, maybe a week. A similar result was obtained by Leppänen et al. The best sampled gene fragment was PGD, which included over 91% of the potentially available nucleotides, in contrast to GS with a completion proportion slightly below 70%. We analyse the complete combined data set, as well as various subsets thereof, in order to infer the strengths and weaknesses possessed by the different gene regions, and to evaluate their utility for future phylogenetic studies within the order. All of the genes were deemed to exhibit fully or partially saturated third codon positions, but CAD and GLN also retained enough information in these partitions to be utilized effectively on this phylogenetic level. Morphological and genetic data indicate that Xyela fusca Blank, Kramp & Shinohara spec. Proceedings of the Washington Entomological Society. As sister to the Pergidae + Argidae, we recover a large clade consisting of Diprionidae, Cimbicidae, and a polyphyletic Tenthredinidae, with Heptamelus and Pseudoheptamelus (both currently classified in the tenthredinid subfamily Selandriinae) as sister to the group [remaining Tenthredinidae, (Diprionidae, Cimbicidae)]. Unlike other members of this group, whose larvae feed inside staminate cones of species of Pinus (Strobus), larvae of X. davidsmithi identified by COI barcoding have been extracted from staminate cones of P. (Pinus) jeffreyi. Analcellicampa danfengensis are both strongly supported as monophyletic, but their position in relation to each other and to the strongly supported clade comprising the four remaining subfamilies (Tenthredininae, Allantinae s.str., Blennocampinae, and Heterarthrinae) varies among analyses. (A) GENELAND (Posterior probabilities are indicated in the scale bar. Xyela davidsmithi (Hymenoptera, Xyelidae), a new pine catkin sawfly with an unusual host association from the Sierra Nevada. (Hymenoptera:Tenthredinidae), a New Species from the Russian Far East The pairing of these two latter groups in relation to Pamphilioidea is highly supported by the model‐based analyses of the 12 + CAD3 + GLN3_hym data set (PP 1 and CF 86%, Fig. Native geographic location and habitat. The sawfly larval stages are plant feeders and look much like the caterpillar of butterflies and moths. We have …  |  Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Fossil and genetic history of a pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) Ecology. The winter is passed in the soil inside a cocoon. Within Diprionidae, the subfamily Monocteninae comes out as paraphyletic, as the representative of Augomonoctenus is separated as the most basal representative of the family. ... White Pine Weevil. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, The subfamilial classification of Tenthredinidae has presented long‐standing problems, and it has been acknowledged that at least some of the traditionally recognized subfamilies are most likely artificial units (Taeger et al., 2010). As the name implies, these pests prefer pine trees and can be particularly devastating to forest areas. Fall Cankerworm – click here. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. After the separation of Xyelidae and Pamphilioidea, the tree is split into two strongly supported branches, one of which consists of the superfamily Tenthredinoidea, and the other of four grass‐ or wood‐boring sawfly families (in sequence: Cephidae, Siricoidea (= Anaxyelidae + Siricidae), and Xiphydriidae) and the Vespina, which includes the ectoparasitic sawfly family Orussidae and the megadiverse but possibly non‐monophyletic suborder Apocrita. 4; JF 99%, Appendix S5a). North-Western Palaearctic species of Pristiphora (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). They usually fall from pine trees about the same time as the pollen. Life Cycle - European Pine Sawfly. Very glad to hear you're busily setting yourself nature challenges for 2021. The sister‐group relationship between these families was recovered earlier in several analyses (Vilhelmsen, 1997; Schulmeister, 2003; Nyman et al., 2006; Davis et al., 2010; Leppänen et al., 2012; Sharkey et al., 2012), whereas others found a disjunct relationship between the two (Vilhelmsen, 2001; Schulmeister et al., 2002; Heraty et al., 2011; Ronquist et al., 2012a; Klopfstein et al., 2013). 2005;15:824–827. Life Cycle. Pine sawfly is a distinctive sawfly that consumes previous season’s pine needles and moves from branch to branch after devouring all of them. Epub 2014 Oct 30. Wu et al., 2013). Our final data set (12 + CAD3 + GLN3_hym) was created by including only partitions that were deemed informative, that is, those that exhibit a more or less linear saturation plot, but excluding those that quickly saturate with increasing phylogenetic distance. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The immature stages and biology of two Xenapates species in West Africa (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). (2012) who presented a monophyletic heterarthrine leafminer clade (= Fenusini) in their phylogenetic hypothesis and supported the move of the leaf skeletonizers to Blennocampinae, though Endelomyia and Caliroa were separated in their results. The authors declare there are no competing interests. 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Third‐position saturation has repeatedly been shown to distort phylogenetic reconstructions, generating long apical branches and spurious sister‐group pairings, especially among older branching events (cf. Fall Webworm. complete codon triplets) were detected in all gene fragments except for GS and POL. 2017;4303:103–121. Adult pine sawflies are seldom seen. . Visualizations of the saturation levels for the different genes and codon partitions (Fig. 2017 Jun 13;17(1):138. doi: 10.1186/s12862-017-0977-0. Reflecting this staggering species diversity, hymenopteran lifestyles are extremely varied, and range from feeding on or inside plants to highly diverse forms of parasitism and predation (Gauld and Bolton, 1988). For all three analysed combined data sets, ML and MP analyses fail to find any stable topology with high support involving these clades (ML: CF < 51%, Fig. In the same paper, Benson proposed to move the tribes Fenusini and Caliroini (Endelomyia + Caliroa) from Heterarthrinae to Blennocampinae, and he also advocated more studies regarding the addition of Heterarthrus in this reclassification. Ronquist et al. pine catkin sawfly larva. IDH and PGD almost paralleled COI in group support, though PGD included less than half of the number of nucleotides in COI. In addition, concatenation of mitochondrial and nuclear genes in a single analysis may hide topological conflict among single‐source trees, but combined analyses commonly yield highly supported phylogenies, even for parts that are ambiguous between sources (e.g. . First microsatellite markers for the pine catkin sawfly Xyela concava (Hymenoptera, Xyelidae) and their application in phylogeography and population genetics. When they finish feeding, they drop to the ground to pupate. However, third positions of the CAD and GLN genes were deemed to be at least partly informative, so our final data sets were created including first and second positions from all genes (12_all, Appendix S2; and 12_hym), as well as the third positions of CAD and GLN (12 + CAD3 + GLN3, Appendix S3). In comparison, GS and POL showed comparable support for only seven and eight nodes, respectively (pie charts, Fig. Place of origin - … Bayesian inference analyses of these reduced data sets converged far more easily and more quickly than the full‐data runs, and produced relatively well resolved and highly supported consensus topologies. They have two pairs of transparent wings but are not capable of stinging. Mirolydidae, a new family of Jurassic pamphilioid sawfly (Hymenoptera) highlighting mosaic evolution of lower Hymenoptera. Birch Catkin Bug. Springtime in North Carolina means it’s raining pollen! Virginia pine sawfly Yes No Yes No No May beetles Pine catkin sawflies Yes Yes Yes Yes ? nov. (Hymenoptera: Argidae) Similarly to earlier studies, although Sharkey et al. Firefly. When fully mature, pear sawfly larvae resemble green-orange caterpillars. The West Palaearctic genera of Nematinae (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Typically the damage and infestations take place on the upper half of the tree, but they can be found anywhere. It's co… Bayesian assignment of Xyela concava populations to each of the identified clusters (…, Figure 3. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. A sawfly is in the same family as bees and wasps. Maximum parsimony analyses of the 12_hym and 12 + CAD3 + GLN3_hym data sets (Appendix S5b,c) produced results that were more in line with the model‐based analyses, with monophyly of all symphytan families except Tenthredinidae, but with somewhat lesser support for superfamilies and larger groups. 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